Tuesday, 24 May 2011

Dynamic risk assessment or ‘shall we use our common sense?’

com·mon·sense \ˈkä-mən-ˈsen(t)s\ adjective  : sound and prudent judgment based on a simple perception of the situation or facts
People often say that effective risk assessments are the application of common sense. I tend to agree, but, different people have different perceptions based on their differing experience. The questions are then; how do we collect all that sense?  How do we hold it in common so that everyone in a team, organisation or partnership shares the wealth of experience on offer? This is the role, to my mind, of the risk assessment.  The process of collecting all that experience and judgment together to give us a ‘common sense’ of what is possible and how we make it work for the benefit for the participants.
But when children are given the opportunity to direct their own play and learning, then what they are doing could go beyond the collective experience which is recorded in those risk assessments. How do we make judgements then?
Recently one of the boys in a Forest School session produced some rubber bands from his pocket. The postmen drop them all up and down along the road we walk to the woods. We had been making musical instruments and he had an idea to make a guitar. But as he worked away, the thing evolved. “It looks a bit like a crossbow” he said and he was right! I knew that I hadn’t discussed with the teacher what we would do if the session moved into the manufacture of weapons. This thing looked lethal but, was the risk proportional to the benefit? He looked so excited and proud of his creation; he had worked well with another boy to bring an idea to reality and seen the potential over and above the initial starting point. These are all benefits, but would the benefits still exist if the crossbow did not? I know from experience that when you have made something that looks functional you have to know if it works or not. The benefit would be diminished if we didn’t know if it worked and we would lose the opportunity to tinker with it and make it work better.
 I asked him to sum up of all the responsibilities of having such a weapon and the safety precautions he should take. He came up with some very good ideas which we all agreed on. We decided that if he went beyond this agreement then I could claim the crossbow as my own forever and he fired it toward the brambles.  It didn’t just fire, it fired really well! There was a collective whoop. Something wonderful had been created. Our next session in the woods involved the manufacture of a lot of bows and arrows. We all had a new surge of creativity and engagement and all of this was managed without the risks outweighing the benefits.
We collect together our experiences in written risk assessments but the children are then exploring in another direction.  For any practitioner, like I found with the construction of the crossbow, there are always a series of judgements that take place when this happens.
Step 1: Oooh! Look at that, that’s interesting...
Step 2: Am I comfortable with that?
Step 3: Shall I intervene or is it fine to carry on?
Step 4: If we do carry on how will we do that safely? Etc...
I have come across this again and again. A few years ago I had responsibility for the effective implementation of health and safety for a large team of staff who worked with children and young people, outdoors, in a variety of environments delivering adventurous, risky, child led opportunities and we came across it there too. We adopted some work on Dynamic Risk Management done by Dan Rees-Jones of the University of Gloucester, part of the Playwork Partnerships network. He came up with a flowchart which follows the decision making path along the steps outlined above. Dynamic Risk management is about using observations and reflecting in that moment, are the benefits proportional to the risk?  As a team we adopted this, tweaked it slightly to fit our situation and used it as a shared protocol that helped us share a sense in common of what to do when we didn’t feel comfortable or something unexpected happened. It also helped us reflect on decisions we had taken and make better decisions again at future times.
I came back to this Dynamic Risk Assessment flowchart recently.  Even though I don’t work with a regular team any more I wanted something similar to use for my Forest School sessions. I work in partnership with teachers or other practitioners who I may only get to be with once a week. The more we have that helps us have a sense in common of what is OK, then the easier it is to be giving consistent message to the children.  The most fundamental changes stemmed from one of those ‘sit-up-the-middle-of-the-night’ moments of inspiration I had about the interrelationship between environment, risk and behaviour.
If you can’t re-establish play or self directed learning with intervention then it is the behaviour that is the problem not the environmental hazard. I don’t just mean the children’s behaviour though. I have witnessed practitioner’s behaviour causing risks and escalating risky behaviour in others. I also started to ask myself the question when does risk management become behaviour management? 
Here is a link to my reworked version, I would be interested in seeing what other practitioners think of it. I look forward to hearing your thoughts....
Author: Lily Horseman


  1. Thanks - this is a great tool for risk assessment & I intend to use it on my outdoor learning days in the woods. I often find myself as an adult (and a woman) feeling uncomfortable about some of the risks my 3 & 4 year olds take but over the past 5 years, through experiences in Norway, I have learned to step back & allow things to take a natural course. You know what 9 times out of 10 no one does get hurt, there is no major calamity etc.

  2. Excellent and well-said, Lily. Am completely with you on the need for assessing but NOT necessarily balancing risk v creativity. I went to a Play convention a few years ago where a head honcho from H+S Exec. spoke of the benefits of weighing up 'risk' of broken bones (short-term) v 'risk' of timidity in life experiences (long-term), which coming from them, I thought quite visionary!!
    Surely part of the skill of being a FS Leader is to be aware, responsible and the best person to assess the 'benefit of risk'?
    On another vein, why should children's scope and exploration be limited by litigation? Would a mother want her child not to go on a FS trip for fear of them falling/tripping/cutting themselves? If you actually ask them, the answer is usually no - they WANT them to explore, have a bit of a wild time. They just want to know that they've got the best professionals with them to help them grow... and they have.

  3. Nice illustration of a sound approach. I'd call this dynamic risk benefit assessment (cf Play England's Managing Risk in Play Provision Implementation Guide, which I co-wrote, as I suspect Lily knows). Makes it more of a mouthful, but adding the b-word on the tin (so to speak) has great propaganda value, as well as being a more accurate description.

  4. I'm an interested parent rather than a professional. I am concerned about the imbalance in risk assessment.

    It's great to meet people trying to achieve more benefits. The flow chart has so many boxes leading to "carry on".

    By comparison my local primary school often finds reasons to avoid activities, and even some of the staff at our forest kindergarten are more inclined to warn off, than to encourage.

  5. Thanks for all your comments and feedback. Some really interesting points made. I think, like Kierna says above, that the confidence and trust in children takes time and experience to build up. The more people that share that experience with each other the more benefits there will be.

  6. Hi Lily

    Good one - I agree with Tim we need to constantly bang on about benefits and like the way you have tried to redirect at every opportunity. One thought on the flow chart about the
    Could the situation be resolved through diversion or establishing new opportunities? box - I know a flow chart needs to be simple but did wander whether the behaviour/emotional support bit might just be added to this as well as the final separate whole group box as this course of action does often result in new opportunities. I can think of a number of occasions with some of the 14 - 16 groups I work with where some simple behavioural/emotional support has resulted in redirection of productive safe involvement.

    Jon (the Cree!)

  7. Hi Lily!
    I used to bring my lad Jake to Wildplay in Herefordshire a long time ago! I applaud your imaginative efforts to introduce a new way of thinking to risk assessment. Its all too easy to stay within safe tried and tested boundaries...which can all too easily become an excuse for a lazy session because one knows what works...but if its too prescriptive then our sessions don't evolve. Dynamic Risk Assessment is a fact in every day life and we all need to recognise this.
    Keep developing your ideas!
    Paul Colley-Davies

  8. Interesting point there Jon (the Cree!). The diversions we offer ARE sometimes emotional, behavior management type diversions. That light touch of an intervention that gets us back on track with whatever age group of kids. I've just written a post over on my own blog that I feel like follows on from this, talking about using agreements rather than rules: http://kindlingplayandtraining.blogspot.com/2011/06/making-weapons-and-group-agreements.html

    Great to hear from you too Paul. I'm trying to imagine how big your kids are now! It sounds like you are playing out still too.

  9. Perfect timing Lily! I have a meeting with one of my schools senior management team to discuss their school grounds and the possibilty of increasing 'risky' experiences for their pupils. The head is really supportive but some of the other staff are very risk averse-this will be a great help in trying to persuade them there is another way!!

  10. I think we should let children use common sence
    Simon - Playhouses

  11. Hey Lily (or Dave),

    Sorry to leave an off-topic comment, but I couldn't find any contact info on the blog, and I wanted to ask about a possible guest post. Please drop me an e-mail!



  12. this is really great, thank you for posting. any chance you could reconnect your flow chart? the link doesn't work anymore.

    1. I think it's here: http://kindlingplayandtraining.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2015/06/FS-Dynamic-Risk-Assessment.pdf

  13. I loves to use crossbow for hunting and last night while surfing on internet I have found a list of best crossbow broadhead